Restoring Credibility in Professional Learning & Development: Dilemmas & Questions

Author: Dr. Justine Chinoperekweyi

Most people are trainers and coaches (business, life, leadership) today, than never before. Why? What results or transformative value has these training and coaching engagements brought to individuals, organizations, and societies? I might be wrong, but it seems the more we get these so called ‘trainers and coaches’ the more decay we see in individuals, families, teams, organizations, and societies. In the spirit of progress and cumulative knowledge development, I guess its fine to passionately question the philosophical orientation and transformative value of most training and development engagements. Without sounding too scientific, the learning and development field can only generate transformative value and sustain credibility of the field, if those who commit to the field clearly define their positions in terms of training & development: ontology, epistemology, methodology, and methods. Can’t universities and business schools be the champions and advocates of learning and development industry? Are the trainers teaching sacred concepts from ‘mars or another planet’ or they are grounded in the universals and particulars that everybody can access? This article seeks to explore contracting essentials in learning and development through pin-pointing some dilemmas and questions that can help in reassuring transformative value through learning and development engagements. But first, here are some of the reasons why most people are calling themselves trainers and coaches:
• Advancing scholarship of discovery, application, integration, teaching and practice
• Genuine concern for development at individual, family, team, and organizational levels
• Professional instrumentalism – it’s all about money because opportunities are vast in this field.
• Rising unemployment levels leading to this form of professional entrepreneurial proclivity.
• Self-branding and normalization of academic credentials.
The key concern for this article is the realization that the learning and development field is facing alarming credibility challenge. However exciting, some training programmes are filled with trainer’s dream-phase concepts that have not be tested, verified, or subjected to critical thought and review by other practitioners and as such have no transformative value. Though the field has a long tradition of relying on certain accreditation bodies for recognition, accreditation, and/or endorsement, there seem to be an increase in rubber-stamping accreditations who are driven by the rampant commercialization of accreditations, endorsements and recognitions.

The upsurge of the noble professional learning and development training is facilitated by the need to bridge the drawbacks of the academe-practitioner divide. The structure of most academic curriculum and the methods of delivery and assessment are predominantly inclined towards accumulation of information and knowledge from books or advancing scientific theories. In terms of scholarship, these learning models prioritize the scholarship of discovery, scholarship of teaching, and to some extent scholarship of integration. It is evident in most graduates today, that such models of education offers a subtle form of escape from ourselves, yet inevitably creating increasing misery, conflict and confusion. Without downgrading their relevance or advocating for the abolishing of such education, it is important to recognize that such conventional learning models overemphasize the learning of some technique in order to earn a livelihood. However, corporate results have proven that the mere cultivation of technique does not bring about creative understanding and an integrated individual. What we call education today has merely produced economists, engineers, doctors, ‘entrepreneurs’, mathematicians, without nurturing the creative impulse that is required to build great teams and great organizations. There seem to be a ‘spill-over effect’ of such traditions into the professional development field – the boundary-line needs to be clearly defined understanding that these two dimensions are not only cumulative but complementary to each other.

The professional learning and development dimension brings about the much needed elements of scholarship: the scholarship of application and scholarship of practice. However, this does not mean to say that all professional learning and development programmes are valuable and transformational – even though participants can give ‘positive reviews’ after the session. In the same vein, some academic institutions have reframed their curriculum to incorporate the professional learning and development dimension. The inclusion of scholarship of application and scholarship of practice in professional learning and development addresses the dilemma of developing specialists and idealists with mere technical knowledge and scientific knowledge. Due to the easy entry into the Learning & Development Industry, there is an upsurge of the so-called ‘professional trainers’, especially fellow doctorate graduates or candidates, whose self-expansive ambitions are premised on some exciting scientific knowledge which does not bring real transformation to individuals, teams, organizations and societies. Most of these ‘train-for-a-living professional trainers’ lack the particulars that form the basis for true knowledge and understanding.

Here are some of the normalized dilemmas being brought about by the upsurge of professional learning and development programmes:

• Certification – the value of certificates has been reduced to mere pieces of paper that any Jack & Jill can offer, with payment of fees and mere participation being the determinants for getting the ‘certificate of completion’. In some instances payment of fees and a Whatsapp message of non-attendance due to other pressing issues, can still earn you the same ‘professional certificate’. Like never before, it is now possible to get a certificate every week from the same trainer or training institutions. All you need is time and money to attend their workshops every week. Professional trainers need to revisit their certification schemes and annotate the value of the certificate, on both certificate of attendants and certificate of completion.

• Contamination of the labor market with inexperienced professionals who attend short courses and acquire mere knowledge of the primary factors. Those in the Learning & Development field should eloquently clarify the standards of practice in a particular field and emphasize the need for participants to embrace a holistic view of their field rather that boast for understanding first causes. After a training session, professional trainers should map a roadmap for participants to further develop their knowledge, craft, and experience.
• Disregard of the conventional learning approaches as a result of the false hopes and comfort derived from the so-called professional certifications. The entrepreneurial proclivity among the ‘professional trainers’ mislead people into believing that the one-week professional certificate is better that the 4-years undergraduate programme, as the trainers do use such magic words as transformational, results-oriented, and so on to lure their prey.
Key questions to consider when contracting for learning and development programme.

What is the depth of customization in the structure, materials, and delivery of the programme?
This question seeks to address the tendency of ‘professional trainers’ to bring conventional classrooms to the professional learning and development field. Most training programmes are on paper professional programmes but in practice or in principle a repetition or refresher of graduate school classes, but conducted in a fancy environment with the trainer making exciting statements through integrating some nascent terms and management fads. To complement academic programmes, the depth of customization in professional learning and development programmes should shun off-the-shelf, outcomes-based methodologies towards inquiry-based methodologies that nurture the creative impulse among participants and enhance the capacity to solve real organizational or societal problems. The depth of customization should bring about an integrated professional with wisdom and practical wisdom, in Aristotle’s terms, that is, phronesis.

How was the training programme, nature and scope, developed?
This question seeks to delve deep into the broad objective of the training through questioning the nature and scope of the programme and the trainer’s intent or underlying purpose for training. A properly framed professional learning and development programme is transformational in the sense that it will be designed to explore an otherwise equivocal subject in more concrete and precise terms with the facilitator eyeing for real transformation. Some essential considerations for those in Learning & Development include collaborative designing of the programme through: 1)the use of universals and research findings to frame and give direction to participants and organizations, 2) blending several knowledge elements, such as social science knowledge and current literature, as informing sources to frame a training programme in more bounded and specific terms, and 3) consider the organization’s strategic intent and the career aspirations of the many participants. Unless the training programme is a money making engine for the trainer and his/her associates, Participatory or collaborative methodologies such as Action Research and Appreciative Inquiry should be adopted at the design phase of the programme.

What is the overall timeframe from design of the programme to completion of the programme?
Organizations today face complex technical and adaptive challenges that cannot be addressed through micky-mouse professional learning and development programmes. Without downgrading those who call themselves experts, most micky-mouse professional learning programmes are designed overnight through copy-paste-edit previous engagements. Such approaches contradict fundamental principles of underlying change, complexity, and chaos in social systems. Training engagements should be rigorous, reflective, research-based, and real.

What are the delivery and assessment methodologies underlying the course?
With the professional trainer as a facilitator, professional learning and development programmes should utilize holistic delivery and assessment methodologies, some of which require a different social settings than the one provided by the training room. Though case studies are mainly used in most professional training rooms there should be contextual difference in relation to the same case study being used in an academic setting. In tackling the case studies, the professional learning and development programme should not ascend to a level of abstraction that leaves experience behind. The complexity of organizational issues cannot be reduced to a few case studies and lecture sessions conducted over 40 hours.

What are the after-training support services?
Professional trainers are coaches and mentors whose relationship with participants is not merely transactional and ends when the training session ends. The trainer should support participants in their continuous personal and professional development. This is in recognition that the participants have unique career aspirations and the training programme had the basis of building foundation and creating career foresight for each participant. Assuming the coaching and mentorship role after the training sessions helps to build professional relationships with the participants and support them in developing specific knowledge, craft, and experience in their fields of practice. The after-training support service will require a group of professional trainers demonstrating diversity in knowledge, skills, and expertise. The after-training service can then be used as the foundation for the development of a harmonized training calendar targeted at specific fields.

Recommendations to those in the field
The professional learning and development field is a noble and exciting field. Based on the five reasons pointed above, reflect on the dominant reason for you to become part of this field. The learning and development field is a noble field and as such should uphold to specific standards of practice. Those in this field should:
• Applaud the norms of transformative practice.
• Fundamentally reorient professional learning and development.
• Establish and commit to specific policies and certification scheme.
• Adopt participatory approaches in the design and delivery of professional programmes. Embrace problem-based methodologies, dynamic collective learning, and evidence into practice approaches.
• Refrain from imposing own prejudices and hopes among participants but nurture the creative impulse
• Focus on effectively blending knowledge, craft, and experience.
• Establish a radical circle involved in the programme; before, during, and after delivery.
• Build ties with research organizations and institutions of higher learning.
• Be actively engaged in scholar-practitioner activities around your field, and be a professional member of international bodies.
• Refrain from being a jack-of all-trades and network with other scholar-practitioners in and outside your field.

The Centre for Organization Leadership & Development (COLD) offers professional certification in Organization Leadership and Development, Director Development, and Talent Management. The programs include concrete experience, reflective observation, implementing interventions, application of best practices in today’s organizations. The delivery approaches include: 1) Competency-based curriculum, 2) 10 Independent modules, 3) Cohorts of 7-10, 4) Facilitator-led learning, 5) Online & Face-to-face sessions, 6) Action Learning Projects, and 7) Social learning activities.Visit:

Dr. Justine Chinoperekweyi is an Organization-Development Scholar-Practitioner who is actively engaged in organization leadership and development, corporate governance, educational leadership, and talent management. He is the author of four books, Director & Lead Instructor at COLD, Editor-In-Chief of the Organization Leadership and Development Quarterly (OLDQ). He can be contacted at


  1. Ahmed on March 28, 2020 at 4:15 pm

    Mere certification, contamination of labour market, and disregard of convetional learning methods – characteristics of emerging L&D professionals. Its all about noney. Thanks for the insight

    • Dr. Chinoperekweyi on March 29, 2020 at 7:19 am

      Thanks a lot Ahmed for the acknowledgement. Scholar-practitioners need to take a stand and model real values towards responsible certification. Certification schemes should comply with ISO 17024:2012 (Personnel Certification) and the significance of conventional programs should be emphasized.

  2. Dotun on March 28, 2020 at 4:38 pm

    I am not in the best frame of mind to comment on this post. I shall however try to do a little.

    This is one of the best thoughts challenging reality in the last few years, in particular, in the recent where the rise of several acclaimed trainers, coaches, mentors, etc are so prominent across Africa in rhe field of training and development and by extension, coaching and mentorship, sponsorship.

    It is Indeed worrisome, and highly questionable to observe the declining knowledge gaps required to power individual competencies, business capabilities, better society and good living are becoming more exstant. A whole lot of the principles, philosophy and contents are not proven, tested and designed to deliver value. Most of the self acclaimed trainers, coaches, mentors appear from another planet with sweetwords, oratory and several cofusing motivational gymnastic,concepts, ideologies, to confuse their victims. They are unskilled, inexperienced, their concepts are untested, unproven, etc lacking in fundamentals, and established guidelines,principles, and consistent anxioms, empirical.

    So much money is in training, you speak and get paid immediately; it is less essential if participants were able to apply the outcomes and or appreciate their praticability in their various endeavours, their curriculum, syncronisation, methodology reality are indeed qyestionable. We are indeed battling between experienced drawn training and mere speeches being wrapped in fine languages and gymnastic.

    Many issues have befallen learning and development in a world punctuated with half-traned, self parading coaches and mentors.

    The result? It is clearly evident in the quality of poor knowledge people sip in, the ROI of learning, the interventions the trainings are meant to do, the change in behavioural and impartation of skills expected to be deposited, the change in execution curve, improvements and better way if doing things, enhancements, and the correctional metrics expected to see.

    WITHOUT timely interventions, repositioning and restructuring the learning and development practice, in particular, in Africa, the knowledge gaps shall continue to be widened and filled with junks, scanty reality and false concepts and cases that will not make significant impacts to individual,society, corporation organizations and the community at large.

    • Dr. Chinoperekweyi on March 29, 2020 at 7:25 am

      Much appreciation for the acknowledgement Dr. Jegede. You did put it correctly by stating that “Many issues have befallen learning and development in a world punctuated with half-trained, self parading coaches and mentors.” This deviance-normalization has been tolerated under the banner of ‘entrepreneurialism’. We are indeed battling between experienced drawn training and mere speeches being wrapped in fine languages and gymnastic.

  3. Ephraim Armstrong on March 28, 2020 at 6:16 pm

    Succinctly and aptly presented. Majority of these trainers have been using the same training materials in all engagements as if all organizations have the same challenge to solve.

    Quite regrettably, participants have their own assessment techniques and if you seem ill-prepared using 1960 materials, you might not get them in your next training schedule and thus how you are judged

    Question Dr: The situation is worse in our universities where some lecturers just download materials from google for tutelage. What pragmatic steps should these universities adopt to ensure they produce graduates who understand the dynamics of industry?

    • Dr. Chinoperekweyi on March 29, 2020 at 7:45 am

      Thanks Ephraim for joining in the conversation. As pointed out in Dr. Jegede’s comment, most training engagement have failed to produce tangible results despite the focus on what I termed “exciting to hear concepts’. The depth of customization should be questioned prior, during, and after the training engagements. It’s common that those in L&D industry promote the same training to different markets or companies and in most instances fail to customize or contextualize the delivery. This is where the ‘spill-over effect’ of the borrowed structure of universities and business schools programme specifications can be traced.
      Getting lecturers downloading materials for tutelage is a sure concern and reason for the demise we face in education. The Faculty members are an essential element of the academic institution and self-policing should be encouraged, However, Quality Assurance and setting radical circles will be of help. I have written 2 and presented two papers that could answer your second question:
      I will share the second paper through email.

  4. Tabani Ndebele on March 29, 2020 at 6:15 pm

    Wow Dr JC.
    Very rich, insightful & awakening call to Organisation Development Practioners.A must read OD Paper.

    Bt l have few questions:
    1) how do we arrest rampant commercialisation of certificates,accredations etc in the OD field that is self proclaimed OD (Prophets) Practioners Zimbabwean Case.

    2) Minimum acceptable standards for One to become a licensed & professional OD practioner

    3)Relevance of training & development programs to meet demands of individual,task & organisation needs (needs analysis)

    NB:I strongly belief it’s high time to bring sanity in the OD field by regulating the practice and training standards.

    • drjustine on March 29, 2020 at 6:29 pm

      Thanks Mr. Ndebele for the acknowledgement
      1. Arresting rampant commercialization of education without grounding on the ethos of practice require raising awareness and promoting evidence-based practice.
      2. The minimum acceptable standards involve a compilation of knowledge, craft, and experience. This is applicable to any field. In the context of OD there is need for a demonstration of ability to deal with the complex adaptive challenges prevalent in the operating environment.
      3. I agree on the significance of a TNA and also Fitness Analysis to ensure alignment with participants career aspirations viz-a-vis national and organizational strategic direction. The tendency among most of us is to push our graduate school areas of specialization into every training participant that we meet. Practices of bracketing, phenomenological analysis are essential. The design of training programmes should be grounded on elaborate philosophical orientation and transformative value.

      Thanks for bringing out such appreciative questions. Will use the same to inform our OLD discourse and quarterly interviews.

  5. Liovic Sanchez on April 28, 2020 at 6:52 am

    Hi Dr. Justine,
    This is really a great opportunity to understand the concept why most people call themselves as trainers and coaches. There are no legal requirements to calling themselves a coach, right? So, it’s free. The five reasons you have written were really exact and interesting.
    1. Advancing scholarship of discovery, application, integration, teaching and practice
    2. Genuine concern for development at individual, family, team, and organizational levels
    3. Professional instrumentalism – it’s all about money because opportunities are vast in this field.
    4. Rising unemployment levels leading to this form of professional entrepreneurial proclivity.
    5. Self-branding and normalization of academic credentials.
    More articles to expect from you.
    Thanks for this one!

  6. Emmanuel Njang on August 9, 2020 at 10:48 am

    Well said Dr Justine,this article is loaded with real issues we see raising in today’s training and Professional environment,everyone wants to do this,but most of them wants to do it prematurely,which in the long run,does not serve it’s intended purpose,and with all this happening,we are raising societies of people/individuals who only believes in instant gratification,they want to make money fast,run successful businesses faster than it is in reality,not forgetting how we want to run families. I for one,believe in developing the individual (trainer,coach,mentor) before you can go out and say,I have this services,come join me on them..much respect for the thoughts you shared here Doc!

  7. Segun Ojarotade on August 9, 2020 at 12:05 pm

    Nice write up from Dr Justine.
    The Government of our land is the regulator of many institutions. It’s up to them to regulate and control the sugar-coated untrain and unprofessional trainers. We shall keep advocating for change.

    I was privileged to attend a month training under the Centre for Management Development in Nigeria, a body enacted by Act to certified trainers in Nigeria. Their record shows that they had only 1999 certified accredited trainers in Nigeria according to their records. Less than 2000accredited management trainers.

    Surprisingly, we have over 55,000 acclaimed training expert in Nigeria.

    But the regulators had less than 2000 as of March 2020.

    Now, The law made it compulsory that even lecturers, professors etc must be accredited by NCMD because of failure of an acclaimed expert professional coach, expert trainers who jumped from one training hall to the other because of their closeness to DG, Chairman, Senator and Permsec. Many trainers may lose their job from 2021 unless they are accredited by NCMD in Nigeria and it cost over $2000 per head to complete the process.

    After the compulsory 1month training, you must have a standard training hall,3accredited trainers from your Team or faculty. Details of the qualification an of your team and so many other questions to pass.

    We have system failure in Africa and until we create laws that regulate and affirm to the terms and conditions of the rules we may be far from the truth.

    As a private body like OLD and some of us, we can only consult for the Gov institution and advocate for professionalism but until we have a strong law enacted to guide and instil the discipline. We may not be able to control the incompetency of an expert coach. Expert trainer etc.

    We shall keep speaking loud and advocate on various platform.

  8. Paul Nyausaru on November 13, 2020 at 12:11 pm

    Dr JC. This is a masterpiece of an article. You raise real issues around this subject. The field has been invaded by all sorts of self proclaimed L & D practitioners. I totaly agree with you on the issue of customising training and making it original rather than using the same content for different settings. Building a lasting relationship with the trainees is what is lacking as the L & D practitioner disappears once they are paid for the session. There is need for regulation of this sector to restore credibility.

    • drjustine on November 13, 2020 at 12:55 pm

      Thanks a lot for the feedback Mr. Paul Nyausaru. The L&D industry is a noble field as it is strategically important in all organizations. Restoring credibility to this noble industry demands action now by those in the field

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